Disease Monitoring

Disease Detection (Monitoring and Surveillance Systems)

This section includes information on studies/projects for pathogen (and/or disease) monitoring and surveillance systems.

For macro-epidemiological aspects of pathogen detection and/or disease incidence, follow the links below and please visit the SDRS page.

TitleLinks to materials
Swine Disease Reporting System (aggregated data from 4 major VDLs): reporting, and detecting changes in patterns over time, age group, region, specimens, and pathogen sub-type.

> Trevisan et al., Procedures for VDL data standardization. JVDI 2021
> Trevisan et al. Prediction of seasonal patterns of PRRSv detection in the US. JVDI 2020.
> Trevisan et al. Macroepidemiological aspects of PRRSV detection over time, age group, and sample type. Plos One 2020.
> Monthly reports available here
> Online dashboards available here
Influenza A virus:

> Moraes et al., Veterinarian perceptions and practices in prevention and control of influenza virus in the Midwest United States swine farms. Frontiers
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae detection by PCR:

> Rawal et al., Patterns of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae detection by PCR in cases submitted to the ISU-VDL from 2004-2016 JSHAP 2018.
Ecology of type I PRRSv in Europe

> Torrents et al., PRRSv classification of breeding herds in Spain. Porcine Health Management 2019
> Torrents et al., Effect of PRRSv status on productivity in Spain. Porcine Health Management 2019

For information on monitoring and surveillance strategies to detect pathogens or diseases:

  • Presentations and guidelines about specific tools/methods:
TitleLinks to materials
Oral fluids-based sampling at the slaughter plant
> Almeida et al. 2016 ISU James McKean conference slides
> Almeida et al. 2017 NHF
> Almeida et al. 2018 Prev Vet Med: Assessment of abattoir based monitoring of PRRSV using oral fluids. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2018.
> Almeida et al. 2018 AASV annual meeting (Monitoring and Surveillance Systems workshop)
Processing fluids: series of studies from lab to the field: PRRS / PED / PCV2


> Lopez et al., 2021 Vet Micro paper: Probability of detecting PRRSv in pooled PF samples.
> Lopez et al. 2020 AASV: Detecting PRRSV antibodies with IDEXX ELISA on PF.
> Trevisan et al. 2020 AASV: Classifying piglet batches to PRRSV, PCV2, and detecting PDCoV, and SVA.
> Lopez et al. 2019 AASV: Dilution effect of PF.
> Lopez et al. 2017 JSHAP paper: PRRS monitoring using PF.
> Lopez et al., 2018 National Hog Farmer: Monitor herds for PRRS using processing-fluids samples.
> Trevisan, Robbins, et al. 2018 NHF: Processing fluid PCR for PRRSV may help sort for performance.
> Lopez et al. 2018 NHF: Pooling PF may increase probability of PRRS virus detection by qPCR.
Family oral fluids (FOF) for PRRSv detection in due-to-wean pigs


> Osemeke et al., Effect of pooling family oral fluids on the probability of PRRSV RNA detection by RT-rtPCR. Prev Vet Med 2022
> Almeida et al., Longitudinal sampling with PF and FOF in herds undergoing elimination. Prev Vet Med 2021
> Almeida et al., Collecting oral fluids and family oral fluids from suckling piglets. Prev Vet Med 2021
> Almeida et al., FOF versus serum for PRRSv detection in due-to-wean litters. Prev Vet Med 2021
> Almeida et al. 2018 AASV: Monitoring PRRSV at low prevalence in suckling pigs
> Almeida et al. Instructions to collect FOF under field conditions
Tongue tips (TT) for PRRSv detection
> Machado et al., Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus RNA detection in tongue tips from dead animals. Frontiers 2022
> Machado et al., Guidelines for tongue tip fluids collection. SOP available.
SPC-based monitoring in breeding herds: Automated, ongoing monitoring of production data


> Silva et al. 2017 Prev Vet Med: Monitoring breeding herd production data to detect PRRSV outbreaks

> Click here for a link to this project’s website with live data
Genetic diversity of PRRS virus

> Trevisan et al., A recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus type 2 field strain derived from two PRRSV-2-modified live virus vaccines. Frontiers. 2023.
> Trevisan et al., Implementing a user-friendly format to analyze PRRSV next-generation sequencing results and associating breeding herd production performance with number of PRRSV strains and recombination events. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 2022.
> Trevisan et al., Genetic diversity over time and space based on RFLP typing. JVDI 2021
> Trevisan et al., Full genome of highly pathogenic PRRSv strain affecting the US swine industry between 2020 and 2021: the 1-4-4 Lineage 1C variant strain.